Does complement play a role in bone development and regeneration?

Immunobiology. 2013 Jan;218(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.imbio.2012.01.020. Epub 2012 Feb 2.


The skeletal and the immune system are not two independent systems, rather, there are multifaceted and complex interactions between the different cell types of both systems and there are several shared cytokines. As a part of the innate immunity, the complement system was found to be an important link between bone and immunity. Complement proteins appear to be involved in bone development and homeostasis, and specifically influence osteoblast and osteoclast activity. This review describes the complex mutual regulation of the two systems, and indicates some of the negative side effects as a result of inappropriate or excessive complement activation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Development / immunology*
  • Bone Regeneration / immunology*
  • Complement Activation
  • Complement System Proteins / physiology*
  • Cytokines / physiology
  • Humans
  • Immune System / physiology
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Musculoskeletal System / immunology
  • Osteoblasts / immunology*
  • Osteoclasts / immunology*


  • Cytokines
  • Complement System Proteins