Age-related macular degeneration in Nepal

Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2011 Jul-Sep;9(35):165-9. doi: 10.3126/kumj.v9i3.6298.


Background: The Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide in elderly.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the demographic characteristics, pattern and risk factors for AMD at a tertiary referral eye centre in Nepal.

Methods: This is a hospital-based prospective study, conducted at Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Nepal from September 2008 to May 2009. All the consecutive cases of AMD diagnosed at the institute were included.

Results: A total of 141 patients (266 eyes) with AMD recruited for the study. The mean age was 69.5 years (9.1SD) with three fifth males (58.9%). Housewives and occupations like agriculture comprised of 38.3% and 42.5% respectively. Three fourth (75.6%) of the patients were illiterate. The proportion of dry and wet AMD were found in 62.4% and 37.6% respectively. Bilateral involvement was seen in 88.7% of the subjects. Three fourth (71.4%) of the AMD eyes had presenting visual acuity less than 6/18. History of smoking was found in 69.9% of patients. Hypertension was the predominant systemic problem (45.4%) followed by diabetes mellitus (12.8%).

Conclusion: AMD is correlated with ageing in our study as well. Dry AMD is more in age groups 45-64 years and wet AMD at 65 years and older. Bilateral involvement with one eye dry and fellow eye wet AMD is more predominant (44%). Smoking and occupations like agriculture and housewife are significant risk factors for AMD. Likewise male sex, illiteracy and hypertension are other risk factors for AMD in hospital settings.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration / diagnosis
  • Macular Degeneration / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Morbidity / trends
  • Nepal / epidemiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retina / pathology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence