Toward online reconstruction of quantitative susceptibility maps: superfast dipole inversion

Magn Reson Med. 2013 Jun;69(6):1582-94. doi: 10.1002/mrm.24405. Epub 2012 Jul 12.


Magnetic susceptibility is an intrinsic tissue property that recently became measureable in vivo by a magnetic-resonance based technique called quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Although QSM may be performed without additional acquisition time, for example, in the course of the well-established susceptibility weighted imaging, the applicability of QSM is currently hampered by the numerical complexity and computational cost associated with the reconstruction procedure. This work introduces a novel QSM framework called superfast dipole inversion which allows rapid online reconstruction of susceptibility maps from wrapped raw gradient-echo phase data. The algorithm relies on the extension and combination of several recent algorithms involving the precalculation of convolution kernels and the correction of inversion artifacts. Reconstruction of three-dimensional high resolution susceptibility maps of the human brain was achieved with superfast dipole inversion in less than 20 s on a conventional workstation computer. Thus, superfast dipole inversion opens the door to an implementation of QSM on MR scanner hardware as well as to the routine reconstruction of large cohorts of datasets.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Algorithms*
  • Brain / anatomy & histology*
  • Computer Systems
  • Female
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Image Enhancement / methods*
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Online Systems
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity