Sdf-1 (CXCL12) improves skeletal muscle regeneration via the mobilisation of Cxcr4 and CD34 expressing cells

Biol Cell. 2012 Dec;104(12):722-37. doi: 10.1111/boc.201200022. Epub 2012 Nov 2.


Background information: The regeneration of skeletal muscles involves satellite cells, which are muscle-specific precursor cells. In muscles, injured either mechanically or as a consequence of a disease, such as muscular dystrophy, local release of the growth factors and cytokines leads to satellite cells activation, proliferation and differentiation of the resulting myoblasts, followed by the formation of new myofibres. Various cell types, such as stem and progenitor cells, originating from other tissues different than the muscle, are also able to follow a myogenic program. Participation of these cells in the repair process depends on their precise mobilisation to the site of the injury.

Results: In this study, we showed that stromal-derived factor-1 (Sdf-1) impacts on the mobilisation of CXC chemokine receptor (Cxcr)4-positive cells and improves skeletal muscle regeneration. Analysis of isolated and in vitro cultured satellite cells showed that Sdf-1 did not influence myoblasts proliferation and expression of myogenic regulatory transcription factors but induced migration of the myoblasts in Cxcr4-dependent ways. This phenomenon was also associated with the increased activity of crucial extracellular matrix modifiers, i.e. metalloproteases Mmp-2 and Mmp-9.

Conclusions: Thus, positive impact of Sdf-1 on muscle regeneration is related to the mobilisation of endogenous cells, that is satellite cells and myoblasts, as well as non-muscle stem cells, expressing Cxcr4 and CD34.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis*
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Chemokine CXCL12 / metabolism*
  • Extracellular Matrix / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology*
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism
  • Muscle Proteins / metabolism*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Receptors, CXCR4 / biosynthesis*
  • Regeneration / physiology*
  • Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle / metabolism*


  • Antigens, CD34
  • CXCL12 protein, rat
  • Chemokine CXCL12
  • Cxcr4 protein, rat
  • Muscle Proteins
  • Receptors, CXCR4
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
  • Mmp2 protein, rat
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Mmp9 protein, rat