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. 2013 Mar;28(3):365-78.
doi: 10.1177/0883073812469294. Epub 2012 Dec 26.




Kinga K Tomczak et al. J Child Neurol. .


Torticollis refers to a twisting of the head and neck caused by a shortened sternocleidomastoid muscle, tipping the head toward the shortened muscle, while rotating the chin in the opposite direction. Torticollis is seen at all ages, from newborns to adults. It can be congenital or postnatally acquired. In this review, we offer a new classification of torticollis, based on its dynamic qualities and pathogenesis. All torticollis can be classified as either nonparoxysmal (nondynamic) or paroxysmal (dynamic). Causes of nonparoxysmal torticollis include congenital muscular; osseous; central nervous system/peripheral nervous system; ocular; and nonmuscular, soft tissue. Causes of paroxysmal torticollis are benign paroxysmal; spasmodic (cervical dystonia); Sandifer syndrome; drugs; increased intracranial pressure; and conversion disorder. The description, epidemiology, clinical presentation, evaluation, treatment, and prognosis of the most clinically significant types of torticollis follow.

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