Potentiation of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of cultured wild ginseng root extract through probiotic fermentation

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013 Mar;65(3):457-64. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12004. Epub 2012 Dec 6.


Objectives: This work aimed to determine some pharmacological properties of non-fermented (WG) and fermented (FWG) extracts of cultured wild ginseng root.

Methods: WG was treated with Bifidobacterium longum to generate FWG. Ginsenoside patterns were analysed using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The effect of WG and FWG on reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Intracellular ROS were detected by flow cytometry. Nitrite in culture supernatant fractions was determined using the Griess reaction. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was used to determine anti-radical activity. Cell viability was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.

Key findings: FWG was rich in ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2, compared with WG. FWG diminished the enhanced ROS level more strongly than WG in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Both WG and FWG decreased the nitrite levels in stimulated macrophage cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.7 and 1.5 mg/ml, respectively, implying that FWG had an enhanced anti-inflammatory activity. Neither WG nor FWG exhibited cytotoxicity on the macrophage cells. In the radical scavenging assay, the IC50 values of WG and FWG were 32.6 and 0.78 mg/ml, respectively, suggesting that FWG had an increased scavenging activity.

Conclusions: FWG possesses enhanced antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity, indicating that fermentation of cultured wild ginseng root extract with a probiotic bacterium can strengthen some of its desirable effects.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Fermentation / physiology*
  • Ginsenosides / chemistry
  • Ginsenosides / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Nitrites / metabolism
  • Panax / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Roots / chemistry*
  • Probiotics / pharmacology*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Ginsenosides
  • Nitrites
  • Plant Extracts
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • ginsenoside Rg3