Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) can be injected to achieve therapeutic benefit across a large range of clinical conditions. To assess the efficacy and safety of BoNT injections for the treatment of certain urologic conditions, including detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD), lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and detrusor overactivity (both neurogenic [NDO] and idiopathic [IDO]), an expert panel reviewed evidence from the published literature. Data sources included English-language studies identified via MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Contents, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Evidence tables generated in the 2008 Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) review of the use of BoNT for autonomic disorders were also reviewed and updated. The panel evaluated evidence at several levels, supporting BoNT as a class, for the serotypes BoNT-A and BoNT-B, as well as for the four individual commercially available formulations: abobotulinumtoxinA (A/Abo), onabotulinumtoxinA (A/Ona), incobotulinumtoxinA (A/Inco), and rimabotulinumtoxinB (B/Rima). The panel ultimately made recommendations on the use of BoNT for the management of these urologic conditions based upon the strength of clinical evidence and following the AAN classification scale. For the treatment of DSD, the evidence supported a Level B recommendation for the use of A/Ona; A/Abo, A/Inco, and B/Rima received a Level U recommendation. For the treatment of NDO, there was sufficient clinical evidence to support a Level A recommendation for BoNT-A as well as for both A/Ona and A/Abo; no published data were identified for either A/Inco or B/Rima (Level U). For the treatment of IDO, the evidence supported a Level A recommendation for A/Ona; A/Inco, A/Abo, and B/Rima received a Level U recommendation. For the management of BPH, the evidence supported a Level B recommendation for BoNT and A/Ona; no published studies were identified for A/Abo, A/Inco, or B/Rima, warranting a Level U recommendation for these three formulations. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BoNT for the management of urologic conditions.
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