The once-daily human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide impacts appetite and energy intake in patients with type 2 diabetes after short-term treatment

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013 Oct;15(10):958-62. doi: 10.1111/dom.12108. Epub 2013 Apr 23.


The aim was to investigate effects of liraglutide on appetite and energy intake in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Eighteen subjects with type 2 diabetes were assigned to treatment with once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (increasing by weekly 0.6 mg increments) or placebo for 3 weeks. Appetite ratings were assessed using visual analogue scales during a 5-h meal test. Energy and macronutrient intake during the subsequent ad libitum lunch were also measured. After 3 weeks, mean postprandial and minimum hunger ratings were significantly lower with liraglutide 1.8 mg than placebo (p < 0.01), and the mean overall appetite score was significantly higher (p = 0.05), indicating reduced appetite. Liraglutide was associated with higher maximum fullness ratings (p = 0.001) and lower minimum ratings of prospective food consumption (p = 0.01). Mean estimated energy intake was 18% lower for liraglutide than placebo [estimated ratio 0.82 (95% CI 0.73;0.94); p = 0.004], but no significant differences in macronutrient distribution were noted. Findings suggest that reduced appetite and energy intake may contribute to liraglutide-induced weight loss.

Keywords: GLP-1 analogue; antidiabetic drug; appetite control; phase I-II study; randomized trial; type II diabetes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Appetite / drug effects*
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Energy Intake / drug effects*
  • Female
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / analogs & derivatives*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Liraglutide
  • Male
  • Postprandial Period
  • Weight Loss / drug effects*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Liraglutide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1