Putative factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralisation: an epidemiological study

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2013 Dec;14(6):375-80. doi: 10.1007/s40368-013-0012-0. Epub 2013 Jul 17.


Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the aetiological factors involved in the development of molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH).

Methods: The study population comprised 4,049 children (2,029 girls, 2020 boys) aged 7-12 years. Children were examined for MIH in the school environment. Putative aetiological factors were evaluated using a questionnaire sent to children's families. The questionnaire included questions on prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal systemic conditions. Multivariate analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression, and Pearson's Chi-square test was used to evaluate nominal or ordinal variables with Fisher's exact test used in cases of small sample sizes. A level of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: MIH was observed in 7.7 % of the study population. A total of 3,827 completed questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 95.3 %. MIH was found to be associated with prematurity (7 %), gastrointestinal problems (3.9 %), pneumonia (6.3 %), frequent fever (26.1 %), measles (14.7 %), and chickenpox (29.3 %) before age 4 years.

Statistics: Prevalence did not vary significantly between girls and boys (p > 0.05). Prematurity, gastrointestinal problems, pneumonia, frequent high fever, measles, and chickenpox before age 4 years were found to be significantly related with MIH (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The aetiology of MIH is not clear yet, and the results of this study support the results of previous studies regarding the putative causal effect of several factors.

MeSH terms

  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia* / epidemiology
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Fever / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Incisor
  • Molar*
  • Prevalence