Effect of culture media and nutrients on biofilm growth kinetics of laboratory and clinical strains of Enterococcus faecalis

Arch Oral Biol. 2013 Oct;58(10):1327-34. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2013.06.017. Epub 2013 Jul 20.


Objective: Enterococcus faecalis is a bacterial pathogen that is often associated with endodontic infections. Biofilm formation is a key virulence attribute in the pathogenicity of E. faecalis. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the effect of various culture media and nutrients on the development of E. faecalis biofilms.

Design: A reference strain and a clinical isolate of E. faecalis were used in all experiments for comparison. Commonly used liquid culture media with different nutrient compositions were used to support the development of E. faecalis biofilms in a time-dependent assay. E. faecalis biofilms were quantified by colony forming unit (CFU) and crystal violet (CV) assays. Biofilm architecture and cellular viability were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

Results: Growth kinetics evaluated by CFU and CV assays and by microscopy showed that E. faecalis biofilms reached maturity at 72h. "Pg broth" (Tryptic Soy Broth with yeast extract, hemen and vitamin K) promoted E. faecalis biofilm formation more than Brain Heart Infusion broth or Tryptic Soy Broth. Addition of 2% glucose enhanced biofilm formation. Thus, it seems that nutrients such as hemen, vitamin K and glucose are important for E. faecalis for the formation of biofilms.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that nutrient-rich media containing glucose enhances the formation of E. faecalis biofilms, which exhibit maturation at 72h.

Keywords: Biofilms; Enterococcus faecalis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biofilms / drug effects*
  • Biofilms / growth & development*
  • Culture Media / pharmacology*
  • Enterococcus faecalis / drug effects*
  • Enterococcus faecalis / growth & development*
  • Enterococcus faecalis / pathogenicity
  • Enterococcus faecalis / ultrastructure
  • Humans
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Virulence


  • Culture Media