Anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia

Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2013 Dec;42(4):893-912. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2013.09.005.


Diagnosis, follow up, and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia are complex and not standardized. This may be partly caused by poor communication of biopsy and cytology findings between pathologists and clinicians as a result of a disparate and confusing terminology used to classify these lesions. This article focuses on general aspects of epidemiology and on clarifying the current terminology of intraepithelial squamous neoplasia, its relationship with human papilloma virus infection, and the current methods that exist to diagnose and treat this condition.

Keywords: Anal carcinoma; Anal intraepithelial neoplasia; Dysplasia; Human papilloma virus.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use
  • Administration, Topical
  • Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use
  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use
  • Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • Anus Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Anus Neoplasms / virology
  • Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • Carcinoma in Situ / therapy*
  • Carcinoma in Situ / virology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology
  • Fluorouracil / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Imiquimod
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Photochemotherapy*
  • Watchful Waiting


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Aminoquinolines
  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • Imiquimod
  • Fluorouracil