Bioaccessibility of vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid from dietary supplements, fortified food and infant formula

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014 Jun;65(4):426-35. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2013.869795. Epub 2014 Mar 13.


In the Netherlands, vitamin intake occurs mainly via food and for some vitamins also via fortified food. In addition, some people take dietary supplements. Information on the bioavailability of vitamins is important for a good estimation of the actual exposure to vitamins. Furthermore, for a reliable intake estimation, it is important to know the accurateness of the claimed vitamin concentration on the product label. In the current study, the amount of vitamin A, vitamin C, and folic acid in different products and their maximum bioavailability (bioaccessibility) were investigated. In about half of the products, the amount of vitamins significantly deviated from the declared amounts. The vitamin bioaccessibility ranged from <1% to 100%. When assessing the dietary intake exposure of vitamins, it is important to take into account both the possible deviation from the declared level and (the variability of) the bioaccessibility of the vitamin in the products.

Keywords: Bioaccessibility; bioavailability; folic acid; vitamin A; vitamin C.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Ascorbic Acid / analysis*
  • Ascorbic Acid / chemistry
  • Ascorbic Acid / metabolism
  • Beverages / analysis
  • Beverages / economics
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dietary Supplements / analysis*
  • Dietary Supplements / economics
  • Digestion
  • Edible Grain / chemistry
  • Fast Foods / analysis
  • Fast Foods / economics
  • Folic Acid / analysis*
  • Folic Acid / chemistry
  • Folic Acid / metabolism
  • Food Labeling / standards
  • Food, Fortified / analysis*
  • Food, Fortified / economics
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Fruit / economics
  • Guideline Adherence
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Formula / chemistry*
  • Infant Formula / economics
  • Infant Formula / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Netherlands
  • Nutritive Value
  • Solubility
  • Vitamin A / analysis*
  • Vitamin A / chemistry
  • Vitamin A / metabolism


  • Vitamin A
  • Folic Acid
  • Ascorbic Acid