Toward better annotation in plant metabolomics: isolation and structure elucidation of 36 specialized metabolites from Oryza sativa (rice) by using MS/MS and NMR analyses

Metabolomics. 2014;10(4):543-555. doi: 10.1007/s11306-013-0619-5. Epub 2013 Dec 29.


Metabolomics plays an important role in phytochemical genomics and crop breeding; however, metabolite annotation is a significant bottleneck in metabolomic studies. In particular, in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics, which has become a routine technology for the profiling of plant-specialized metabolites, a substantial number of metabolites detected as MS peaks are still not assigned properly to a single metabolite. Oryza sativa (rice) is one of the most important staple crops in the world. In the present study, we isolated and elucidated the structures of specialized metabolites from rice by using MS/MS and NMR. Thirty-six compounds, including five new flavonoids and eight rare flavonolignan isomers, were isolated from the rice leaves. The MS/MS spectral data of the isolated compounds, with a detailed interpretation of MS fragmentation data, will facilitate metabolite annotation of the related phytochemicals by enriching the public mass spectral data depositories, including the plant-specific MS/MS-based database, ReSpect.

Keywords: Flavonoid; Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); Oryza sativa; Rice; Specialized metabolites; Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).