Plant development. Integration of growth and patterning during vascular tissue formation in Arabidopsis

Science. 2014 Aug 8;345(6197):1255215. doi: 10.1126/science.1255215.


Coordination of cell division and pattern formation is central to tissue and organ development, particularly in plants where walls prevent cell migration. Auxin and cytokinin are both critical for division and patterning, but it is unknown how these hormones converge upon tissue development. We identify a genetic network that reinforces an early embryonic bias in auxin distribution to create a local, nonresponding cytokinin source within the root vascular tissue. Experimental and theoretical evidence shows that these cells act as a tissue organizer by positioning the domain of oriented cell divisions. We further demonstrate that the auxin-cytokinin interaction acts as a spatial incoherent feed-forward loop, which is essential to generate distinct hormonal response zones, thus establishing a stable pattern within a growing vascular tissue.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aminohydrolases
  • Arabidopsis / drug effects
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Body Patterning / drug effects
  • Body Patterning / genetics
  • Body Patterning / physiology*
  • Cell Division / genetics
  • Cell Division / physiology
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Indoleacetic Acids / metabolism*
  • Indoleacetic Acids / pharmacology
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Vascular Bundle / drug effects
  • Plant Vascular Bundle / growth & development*
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Cytokines
  • Indoleacetic Acids
  • LHW protein, Arabidopsis
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • TARGET OF MP 5 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Trans-Activators
  • Aminohydrolases
  • cytokinin riboside 5'-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolase, Arabidopsis

Associated data

  • GEO/GSE56868