Phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant activity and in vitro anticancer potential of ethanolic and water leaves extracts of Annona muricata (Graviola)

Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2014 Sep;7S1:S355-63. doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60258-3.

Abstract

Objective: To determine the phytochemical composition, antioxidant and anticancer activities of ethanolic and water leaves extracts of Annona muricata (A. muricata) from the Eastern Uganda.

Methods: Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard qualitative methods and a Chi-square goodness of fit test was used to assign the relative abundance of the different phytochemicals. The antioxidant activity was determined using the 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power methods whereas the in vitro anticancer activity was determined using three different cell lines.

Results: Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed that they were rich in secondary class metabolite compounds such as alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins and lactones, anthraquinones, tannins, cardiac glycosides, phenols and phytosterols. Total phenolics in the water extract were (683.69±0.09) μg/mL gallic acid equivalents (GAE) while it was (372.92±0.15) μg/mL GAE in the ethanolic extract. The reducing power was 216.41 μg/mL in the water extract and 470.51 μg/mL GAE in the ethanolic extract. In vitro antioxidant activity IC50 was 2.0456 mg/mL and 0.9077 mg/mL for ethanolic and water leaves extracts of A. muricata respectively. The ethanolic leaves extract was found to be selectively cytotoxic in vitro to tumor cell lines (EACC, MDA and SKBR3) with IC50 values of 335.85 μg/mL, 248.77 μg/mL, 202.33 μg/mL respectively, while it had no cytotoxic effect on normal spleen cells. The data also showed that water leaves extract of A. muricata had no anticancer effect at all tested concentrations.

Conclusions: The results showed that A. muricata was a promising new antioxidant and anticancer agent.

Keywords: Annona muricata; Anticancer; Antioxidant; Phytochemical screening.