Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive patients in Turkey

J Int AIDS Soc. 2014 Nov 2;17(4 Suppl 3):19750. doi: 10.7448/IAS.17.4.19750. eCollection 2014.


Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs) in newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive patients in Turkey.

Materials and methods: The study was carried out between 2009 and 2014 and antiretroviral naïve 774 HIV-1 infected patients from 19 Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Departments in Turkey were included; gender: 664 (86%) male, median age: 37 (range; 1-77), median CD4+T-cell: 360 (range; 1-1320) count/mm(3), median HIV-RNA load: 2.10+E6 (range; 4.2+E2-7.41+E8) IU/mL. HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were detected by population based sequencing of the reverse transcriptase (codon 41-238) and protease (codon 1-99) domains of pol gene of HIV-1, and analyzed according to the criteria by the World Health Organization 2009 list of surveillance drug resistance mutations [1].

Results: The patients had TDRMs to NRTIs (K65R, M184V), NNRTIs (K101E, K103N/S, G190A/E/S, Y181I/C, Y188H/L) and PIs (M46L, I54V, L76V, V82L/T, N83D, I84V, L90M). The prevalence of overall TDRMs was 6.7% (52/774). Resistance mutations were found to be 0.7% (6/774), 4.1% (32/774) and 2.1% (17/774) to NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs drug groups, respectively. Three patients had NRTIs+NNRTs resistance mutations (M184V+K103N) as multi-class drug resistance. However, thymidine analogue resistance mutations (TAMs) determined two distinct genotypic profiles in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: TAM1: M41L, L210W and T215Y, and TAM2: D67N, K70R, K219E/Q, and T215F. The prevalence of TAM1 and TAM2 were 7.7% (60/774) and 4.3% (34/774), respectively.

Conclusions: The TDRMs prevalence of antiretroviral naïve HIV-1 infected patients may be suggested current situation of Turkey. These long-term and large-scale results show that the resistance testing must be an integral part of the management of HIV infection in Turkey.