Characterization of lipid composition and high-density lipoprotein function in HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral regimens

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015 Feb;31(2):221-8. doi: 10.1089/AID.2014.0239. Epub 2014 Dec 29.


There is an increase in the cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity in individuals infected with HIV that may be due to inflammatory lipid modulation not captured by traditional lipid measures. The objective of this study was to perform advanced lipoprotein phenotyping inclusive of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity and lipoprotein particle concentration and size in a well-phenotyped group of 118 patients infected with HIV. We used simple and multivariable analyses to determine the associations between advanced lipoprotein parameters and known cardiometabolic risk factors. Participants were on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) and had benign traditional lipid panels [median total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides of 178 mg/dl, 108 mg/dl, 44 mg/dl, and 122.5 mg/dl, respectively]. However, advanced lipoprotein phenotyping demonstrated an elevation of LDL particle number (median of 1,233 nmol/liter) and a decrease in LDL size (median of 20.4 nm), along with a decrease in protective, large HDL particles (median of 3.15 μmol/liter) and reduced HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in comparison to controls of other studies. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was associated with HDL levels (β=0.395, p<0.001), small LDL particle concentration (β=-0.198, p=0.031), insulin sensitivity by the Matsuda index (β=0.218, p=0.029), and the Framingham Risk Score (β=-0.184, p=0.046). We demonstrate an atherogenic lipoprotein profile by NMR spectroscopy and HDL efflux measurement in a group of HIV-infected patients on stable ART with normal lipid panels.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Atherosclerosis / epidemiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Lipoproteins / blood*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Assessment


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • Lipoproteins