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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2015 Jan;51(1):52-66.
doi: 10.1037/a0038454.

Enhancing Cognitive and Social-Emotional Development Through a Simple-To-Administer Mindfulness-Based School Program for Elementary School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Enhancing Cognitive and Social-Emotional Development Through a Simple-To-Administer Mindfulness-Based School Program for Elementary School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Kimberly A Schonert-Reichl et al. Dev Psychol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th graders (N = 99) were randomly assigned to receive the SEL with mindfulness program versus a regular social responsibility program. Measures assessed executive functions (EFs), stress physiology via salivary cortisol, well-being (self-reports), prosociality and peer acceptance (peer reports), and math grades. Relative to children in the social responsibility program, children who received the SEL program with mindfulness (a) improved more in their cognitive control and stress physiology; (b) reported greater empathy, perspective-taking, emotional control, optimism, school self-concept, and mindfulness, (c) showed greater decreases in self-reported symptoms of depression and peer-rated aggression, (d) were rated by peers as more prosocial, and (e) increased in peer acceptance (or sociometric popularity). The results of this investigation suggest the promise of this SEL intervention and address a lacuna in the scientific literature-identifying strategies not only to ameliorate children's problems but also to cultivate their well-being and thriving. Directions for future research are discussed.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Reaction time (RT) results for executive function tasks. Adjusted means at posttest in RT on EF tasks for MindUP and business as usual (BAU [comparison]) conditions, with covariates for group, RT at pretest, accuracy at pretest, age, gender, English as a second language, block condition, Group × Block interaction, and accuracy of response (correct/incorrect).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Results for cortisol at posttest. Means for cortisol over the school day at posttest for MindUP and business as usual (BAU [comparison]) children.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Results for children's self-reported social and emotional competencies.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Results for peer nominations of prosocial and aggressive behavior and peer liking. Mean change scores across indices of peer nominations of prosocial and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and peer liking by condition.

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