Dairy consumption and gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

Nutr Cancer. 2015;67(4):555-68. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2015.1019634.


Studies investigating the association of dairy consumption with gastric cancer risk have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to review and summarize the epidemiologic evidence on the relation of total dairy and milk consumption with risk of gastric cancer. We summarized the available literature on this topic using meta-analysis of relative risks (RR) associated with total dairy and milk intake. The total of 17 case-control and 6 cohort studies (3256 cases) were eligible for inclusion. When comparing the highest with the lowest category of total dairy intake, the results of cohort studies indicated that increased consumption of total dairy food was associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer (RR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.64-0.91), whereas case-control studies provided no association. In subgroup analysis, significantly inverse associations between total diary food consumption and gastric cancer risk were observed in Europe subgroup (RR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.54-0.99), U.S. subgroup (RR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.63-0.98) but not in Asia subgroup. However, milk consumption was not associated with gastric cancer risk no matter in main or subgroup analysis. The results of cohort studies, but not case-control studies, suggested that total dairy might be related to the reduction of gastric cancer risk. Milk consumption was not associated with gastric cancer risk.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Asia
  • Dairy Products*
  • Diet*
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Europe
  • Humans
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Risk Factors
  • Stomach Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • United States