Review of nut phytochemicals, fat-soluble bioactives, antioxidant components and health effects

Br J Nutr. 2015 Apr:113 Suppl 2:S68-78. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514003729.


The levels of phytochemicals (total phenols, proanthocyanidins, gallic acid + gallotannins, ellagic acid + ellagitannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes and phytates), fat-soluble bioactives (lipid, tocols, phytosterols, sphingolipids, carotenoids, chlorophylls and alkyl phenols) as well as natural antioxidants (nutrient and non-nutrient) present in commonly consumed twelve nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, chestnut, hazelnut, heartnut, macadamia, peanut, pecan, pine nut, pistachio and walnut) are compared and reported. Recent studies adding new evidence for the health benefits of nuts are also discussed. Research findings from over 112 references, many of which have been published within last 10 years, have been compiled and reported.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Bioactives; Health effects; Natural antioxidants; Nuts; Phytochemicals.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Diet, Mediterranean
  • Evidence-Based Medicine*
  • Functional Food / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Nutrition Policy*
  • Nuts / chemistry*
  • Phytochemicals / analysis
  • Phytochemicals / chemistry
  • Phytochemicals / therapeutic use*
  • Plant Epidermis / chemistry
  • Risk
  • Solubility


  • Antioxidants
  • Phytochemicals