Effect of vitamin K2 on progression of atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in nondialyzed patients with chronic kidney disease stages 3-5

Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2015;125(9):631-40. doi: 10.20452/pamw.3041. Epub 2015 Jul 15.


Introduction: Observational studies have shown that high dietary intake of vitamin K2 is associated with reduced risk of coronary vascular disease and vascular calcification.

Objectives: We assessed the effect of vitamin K2 substitution on the progression of atherosclerosis and calcification in nondialyzed patients with CKD stages 3-5.

Patients and methods: The study included 42 nondialyzed patients with CKD. The following measurements were taken at baseline and after 270 ±12 days of supplementation with vitamin K2 at a dose of 90 μg (menaquinone, MK-7) together with 10 μg of cholecalciferol (K+D group) or 10 μg of cholecalciferol (group D): common carotid intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), coronary artery calcification score (CACS), basic biochemical parameters, lipids, and calcification modulators: matrix Gla protein (MGP), desphosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), fetuin A, osteocalcin (OC), and fibroblast growth factor 23.

Results: The increase of CCA-IMT was significantly lower in the K+D group compared with the D group: from 0.95 ±0.2 mm to 1.01 ±0.3, P = 0.003 vs from 1.02 ±0.2 mm to 1.16 ±0.3, P = 0.003 (ΔCCA-IMT, 0.06 ±0.08 vs 0.136 ±0.05 mm, P = 0.005, respectively). The increase in CACS was slightly lower in the K+D group than in the D group (ΔCACS, 58.1 ±106.5 AU vs 74.4 ±127.1 AU, P = 0.7). In the K+D group, a significant decrease in the level of dp-ucMGP and total OC was observed.

Conclusions: A 270-day course of vitamin K2 administration in patients with CKD stages 3-5 may reduce the progression of atherosclerosis, but does not significantly affect the progression of calcification. Vitamin K2 significantly changes the levels of calcification promoters and inhibitors: dp-ucMGP, OC, and OPG.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01101698.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Atherosclerosis / drug therapy
  • Atherosclerosis / pathology*
  • Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Disease Progression
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Random Allocation
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / drug therapy
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / pathology*
  • Vascular Calcification / drug therapy
  • Vascular Calcification / pathology*
  • Vitamin K 2 / pharmacology*
  • White People


  • Vitamin K 2

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01101698