The economic impact of symptomatic menopause among low-socioeconomic women in the United States

Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2016;16(2):305-13. doi: 10.1586/14737167.2015.1073589. Epub 2015 Aug 2.


Background: Menopausal symptoms have a significant negative impact on patient's quality of life and increase healthcare costs among women.

Methods: This retrospective analysis used data from a U.S. national database (01 January 2008-31 December 2010). Patients with a diagnosis of menopause symptoms or a prescription claim for hormone therapy were matched to control patients. Healthcare resource utilization and costs during the 6-month follow-up period were compared. Generalized linear models were used to adjust for differences in baseline and demographic characteristics between the cohorts.

Results: A total of 71,076 patients were included in each cohort. Patients with menopausal symptoms were more likely to have depression and anxiety and incurred significantly higher follow-up healthcare costs ($7237 vs $6739, p < 0.001) and healthcare utilization during the 6-month follow-up period.

Conclusion: Patients diagnosed with menopausal symptoms or treated with hormone therapy incurred significantly higher healthcare costs than those without menopausal symptoms or treatment.

Keywords: hormone therapy; menopause; outcomes research.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / epidemiology
  • Anxiety / etiology
  • Depression / ethnology
  • Depression / etiology
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy / economics
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy / methods*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Care Costs*
  • Health Resources / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Menopause*
  • Middle Aged
  • Quality of Life*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States