Development of new anatomy reconstruction software to localize cardiac isochrones to the cardiac surface from the 12 lead ECG

J Electrocardiol. 2015 Nov-Dec;48(6):959-65. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2015.08.036. Epub 2015 Aug 28.


Non-invasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) of the cardiac muscle can help the pre-procedure planning of the ablation of ventricular arrhythmias by reducing the time to localize the origin. Our non-invasive ECGI system, the cardiac isochrone positioning system (CIPS), requires non-intersecting meshes of the heart, lungs and torso. However, software to reconstruct the meshes of the heart, lungs and torso with the capability to check and prevent these intersections is currently lacking. Consequently the reconstruction of a patient specific model with realistic atrial and ventricular wall thickness and incorporating blood cavities, lungs and torso usually requires additional several days of manual work. Therefore new software was developed that checks and prevents any intersections, and thus enables the use of accurate reconstructed anatomical models within CIPS. In this preliminary study we investigated the accuracy of the created patient specific anatomical models from MRI or CT. During the manual segmentation of the MRI data the boundaries of the relevant tissues are determined. The resulting contour lines are used to automatically morph reference meshes of the heart, lungs or torso to match the boundaries of the morphed tissue. Five patients were included in the study; models of the heart, lungs and torso were reconstructed from standard cardiac MRI images. The accuracy was determined by computing the distance between the segmentation contours and the morphed meshes. The average accuracy of the reconstructed cardiac geometry was within 2mm with respect to the manual segmentation contours on the MRI images. Derived wall volumes and left ventricular wall thickness were within the range reported in literature. For each reconstructed heart model the anatomical heart axis was computed using the automatically determined anatomical landmarks of the left apex and the mitral valve. The accuracy of the reconstructed heart models was well within the accuracy of the used medical image data (pixel size <1.5mm). For the lungs and torso the number of triangles in the mesh was reduced, thus decreasing the accuracy of the reconstructed mesh. A novel software tool has been introduced, which is able to reconstruct accurate cardiac anatomical models from MRI or CT within only a few hours. This new anatomical reconstruction tool might reduce the modeling errors within the cardiac isochrone positioning system and thus enable the clinical application of CIPS to localize the PVC/VT focus to the ventricular myocardium from only the standard 12 lead ECG.

Keywords: Anatomical models; ECGI; Inverse problem; Patient specific models.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Algorithms*
  • Body Surface Potential Mapping / methods*
  • Computer Simulation
  • Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Anatomic
  • Models, Cardiovascular
  • Patient-Specific Modeling
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Software*
  • Ventricular Premature Complexes / pathology*
  • Ventricular Premature Complexes / physiopathology*