Impact of malocclusion and dentofacial anomalies on the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents

Angle Orthod. 2015 Nov;85(6):1027-34. doi: 10.2319/100914-722.1.


Objectives: To investigate the association between malocclusion/dentofacial anomalies and dental caries among adolescents.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years enrolled at public schools in the city of Osório in southern Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a structured questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic variables. A trained examiner recorded the presence of malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI]), traumatic dental injury, and dental caries. Data analysis involved the chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for the multivariable analysis.

Results: A total of 44.8% of the adolescents had dental caries (mean DFMT = 1.33 ± 1.84). The DAI index ranged from 15 to 77 (mean = 29.0 ± 7.9); 43.6% of the sample had severe malocclusion and 11.6% had traumatic dental injury. The prevalence and severity of dental caries were significantly greater among adolescents with severe malocclusion. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that adolescents with severe or handicapping malocclusion had a 31% greater probability of having dental caries (prevalence ratio: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02-1.67), independently of demographic, socioeconomic, or clinical aspects. The orthodontic characteristics associated with the occurrence and severity of caries were maxillary irregularity ≥3 mm (P = .021) and abnormal molar relationship (P = .021).

Conclusions: Handicapping malocclusion, maxillary irregularity, and abnormal molar relationship were associated with the occurrence and severity of dental caries. The findings suggest that the prevention and treatment of these conditions can contribute to a reduction in dental caries among adolescents.

Keywords: Adolescent; Dental caries; Malocclusion.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Caries / epidemiology*
  • Dental Caries / pathology
  • Dentofacial Deformities / complications*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Malocclusion / complications*
  • Prevalence
  • Schools
  • Students
  • Surveys and Questionnaires