Effect of taking a one time injection of one mg leuprolide acetate three days after embryo transfer on pregnancy outcome and level of first beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) level

Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2015;42(5):568-70.


Purpose: To determine if the injection of a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) three days after embryo transfer will improve pregnancy and implantation rates.

Materials and methods: One mg s.c. of leuprolide acetate was randomly given based on patient decision three days after embryo transfer to some patients undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET).

Results: For women aged ≤ 43 the clinical pregnancy rate for those not taking the GnRHa was 39.5% (68/122) vs. 54.5% (42/77) for those taking leuprolide acetate (Chi-square, p = 0.0275). The respective implantation rates were 22.6% vs. 30.2% (p = 0.0495). There was no difference in first serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) levels according to whether leuprolide was used or not.

Conclusions: Leuprolide acetate similar to other GnRH agonists can improve implantation rates following IVF-ET when injected once in mid-luteal phase. The beneficial effect may be on GnRH receptors in the endometrium rather than the embryo (which had been hypothesized to direct increased placental production of hCG).

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood*
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Embryo Transfer
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists*
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intramuscular
  • Leuprolide / administration & dosage*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Pregnancy Rate


  • Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • Leuprolide