Development of Lipophilic Antioxidants and Chloroplasts during the Sprouting of Diverse Triticum spp

J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Feb 3;64(4):913-22. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b05474. Epub 2016 Jan 25.


The influence of sprouting times and illumination conditions on lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids, tocochromanols, alkylresorcinols, and steryl ferulates), chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was investigated using four varieties each of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum), spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta), durum (T. durum), emmer (T. dicoccum), and einkorn (T. monococcum). Carotenoid levels significantly increased during sprouting, particularly, under light exposure. In contrast, concentrations of other lipophilic antioxidants were affected to a lesser extent. Moreover, the quantitative development of lipophilic antioxidants was evidently determined by genotype. On the basis of the levels of carotenoids newly synthesized during sprouting, a chloroplast development index indicated that chloroplast ontogenesis during sprouting occurred at different species-dependent rates. Thermal degradation of carotenoids, tocochromanols, chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was observed during the drying of sprouts at 40 and 90 °C, while alkylresorcinol and steryl ferulate levels remained unaffected. Wheat sprouts were shown to be potential functional ingredients to increase the nutritional value of cereal products.

Keywords: germination; lutein; tocopherols; vitamin E; β-carotene.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Carotenoids / chemistry
  • Carotenoids / metabolism
  • Chloroplasts / chemistry
  • Chloroplasts / metabolism*
  • Germination
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Seeds / classification
  • Seeds / growth & development*
  • Seeds / metabolism
  • Triticum / chemistry
  • Triticum / classification
  • Triticum / growth & development*
  • Triticum / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Carotenoids