Quantification of coffee blends for authentication of Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak) via metabolomics: A proof of concept

J Biosci Bioeng. 2016 Jul;122(1):79-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2015.12.008. Epub 2016 Jan 6.


Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak), an animal-digested coffee with an exotic feature, carries a notorious reputation of being the rarest and most expensive coffee beverage in the world. Considering that illegal mixture of cheap coffee into civet coffee is a growing concern among consumers, we evaluated the use of metabolomics approach and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) prediction technique to quantify the degree of coffee adulteration. Two prediction sets, consisting of certified and commercial coffee, were made from a blend of civet and regular coffee with eleven mixing percentages. The prediction model exhibited accurate estimation of coffee blend percentage thus, successfully validating the prediction and quantification of the mixing composition of known-unknown samples. This work highlighted proof of concept of metabolomics application to predict degree of coffee adulteration by determining the civet coffee fraction in blends.

Keywords: Asian palm civet coffee; Coffee blend; Kopi Luwak; Metabolomics; Orthogonal projection to latent structures; Prediction model.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Coffea / metabolism*
  • Coffee / chemistry*
  • Coffee / metabolism*
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Metabolomics*
  • Viverridae / metabolism*


  • Coffee