Alcohol-related neuropsychological deficits result from chronic and excessive alcohol consumption and are associated with structural and functional damage of Papez's circuit and frontocerebellar circuit. Alcohol-related cognitive deficits are heterogeneous but especially affect executive functions and memory abilities. They result in difficulties to change alcohol behavior combined with a tendency for patients to overestimate their capacity to succeed. Alcohol-related cognitive deficits could be a risk-factor for relapse since they hamper patients to benefit fully from treatment (especially when based on relapse prevention). Screening tools usable by non-psychologists are available and can be completed by an extensive neuropsychological examination conducted by a neuropsychologist when necessary. Alcohol treatment should be adjusted to take alcohol-related cognitive deficits into account, by promoting longer treatment in healthy environment for example. Improvements of alcohol treatment options, including specific neuropsychological rehabilitation, are required for patients with persistent alcohol-related cognitive deficits.
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