For decades there was a general consensus about diagnostic investigations and surgical treatment of symptomatic pathological changes in the vitreomacular interface (VMI). The introduction of SD-OCT imaging helped in the understanding of the pathogenetic processes at this interface and risk factors were defined for the macular traction syndrome, epiretinal membrane (ERM) and macular hole. After approval of ocriplasmin for non-surgical treatment, a new classification based on treatment outcome and new imaging techniques was established. Precise separation of physiological, age-related changes in the VMI and pathological changes was then possible. Clinically relevant aspects in the diagnostic testing and treatment of diseases of the VMI are reported in this literature review.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.