The Four Layers of Aging

Cell Syst. 2015 Sep 23;1(3):180-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cels.2015.09.002. Epub 2015 Sep 23.


Instead of considering aging in terms of discrete hallmarks, we suggest that it operates in four layers, each at a different biological scale. Malfunctions within each layer-and connections between them-produce the aged phenotype and its associated susceptibility to disease.

Keywords: Aging; adaptive response; age-related diseases; dietary/caloric restriction; evolutionary fitness.

Publication types

  • Review