Molar-incisor hypomineralization and the association with childhood illnesses and antibiotics in a group of Finnish children

Acta Odontol Scand. 2016 Jul;74(5):416-22. doi: 10.3109/00016357.2016.1172342. Epub 2016 May 3.


Objective: Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental enamel defect affecting 1-4 first permanent molars (FPMs) and often also incisors. The aim of this study was to assess whether childhood illnesses or medication are associated with MIH.

Material and methods: FPMs and incisors of 287 Finnish children were examined for MIH in line with the criteria of the EAPD. Health data from the first 3 years of life was collected from medical records and the associations with MIH and MIH2 (lesions in at least one FPM and incisor) were assessed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses.

Results: The prevalence of MIH and MIH2 were 11.5% and 6.3%, respectively. During the first 3 years of life, the children with MIH had sought care for infectious illnesses more often than the children without MIH (mean number of visits (SD) 7.9(6.4) vs. 6.0(5.1), p = 0.045, independent samples t-test). After adjustment for confounding factors, children who had received penicillin or macrolides within the first year, or amoxicillin within the first 3 years had a higher risk for MIH (2.61, 4.07 and 2.58 times, adjusted OR, respectively) or MIH2 (3.16 times, aOR for penicillin and amoxicillin) compared to those who had not received that antibiotic. Of the illnesses, children with at least one episode of otitis within the first year had a higher risk for MIH (2.28 times, aOR) than those who had not suffered from otitis.

Conclusions: Acute otitis media and the use of certain antibiotics were associated with the elevated risk of MIH/MIH2.

Keywords: Antibiotics; bacterial infections; dental enamel; hypomineralization; virus diseases.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Amoxicillin / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antitussive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bronchodilator Agents / therapeutic use
  • Chickenpox / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Communicable Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Dental Enamel / pathology
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / epidemiology*
  • Finland / epidemiology
  • Gastroenteritis / epidemiology
  • Histamine Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Incisor / pathology
  • Macrolides / therapeutic use
  • Molar / pathology
  • Otitis Media / epidemiology
  • Penicillins / therapeutic use
  • Prevalence
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Urinary Tract Infections / epidemiology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Antitussive Agents
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Histamine Antagonists
  • Macrolides
  • Penicillins
  • Amoxicillin