Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and postprandial insulin release without altering glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations in healthy overweight and obese adults: a randomised-controlled trial

Br J Nutr. 2016 Jul;116(2):360-74. doi: 10.1017/S0007114516001872. Epub 2016 May 20.


Dietary mycoprotein decreases energy intake in lean individuals. The effects in overweight individuals are unclear, and the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of mycoprotein on energy intake, appetite regulation, and the metabolic phenotype in overweight and obese volunteers. In two randomised-controlled trials, fifty-five volunteers (age: 31 (95 % CI 27, 35) years), BMI: 28·0 (95 % CI 27·3, 28·7) kg/m2) consumed a test meal containing low (44 g), medium (88 g) or high (132 g) mycoprotein or isoenergetic chicken meals. Visual analogue scales and blood samples were collected to measure appetite, glucose, insulin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Ad libitum energy intake was assessed after 3 h in part A (n 36). Gastric emptying by the paracetamol method, resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were recorded in part B (n 14). Metabonomics was used to compare plasma and urine samples in response to the test meals. Mycoprotein reduced energy intake by 10 % (280 kJ (67 kcal)) compared with chicken at the high content (P=0·009). All mycoprotein meals reduced insulin concentrations compared with chicken (incremental AUClow (IAUClow): -8 %, IAUCmedium: -12 %, IAUChigh: -21 %, P=0·004). There was no significant difference in glucose, PYY, GLP-1, gastric emptying rate and energy expenditure. Following chicken intake, paracetamol-glucuronide was positively associated with fullness. After mycoprotein, creatinine and the deamination product of isoleucine, α-keto-β-methyl-N-valerate, were inversely related to fullness, whereas the ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate, was positively associated. In conclusion, mycoprotein reduces energy intake and insulin release in overweight volunteers. The mechanism does not involve changes in PYY and GLP-1. The metabonomics analysis may bring new understanding to the appetite regulatory properties of food.

Keywords: Appetite hormones; Energy intake; GAA guanidinoacetic acid; GI gastrointestinal; GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1; Gastric emptying; IAUC incremental AUC; Metabonomics; Mycoprotein; Obesity; Overweight; PYY peptide tyrosine-tyrosine; REE resting energy expenditure; T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Appetite / drug effects*
  • Appetite / physiology
  • Appetite Regulation / physiology
  • Dietary Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Dietary Proteins / therapeutic use
  • Dipeptides / blood
  • Eating / physiology
  • Energy Intake / drug effects*
  • Female
  • Fungal Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Fungal Proteins / therapeutic use
  • Fusarium / chemistry
  • Gastric Emptying / drug effects
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones / blood*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity* / blood
  • Obesity* / diet therapy
  • Obesity* / physiopathology
  • Peptide YY / blood
  • Postprandial Period
  • Poultry
  • Satiation / drug effects
  • Young Adult


  • Dietary Proteins
  • Dipeptides
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones
  • Insulin
  • tyrosyltyrosine
  • Peptide YY
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1