Background: Propolis is a natural resin made by bees from various plant sources and exerts antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. The purpose of this study is to assess adjunctive benefit of propolis supplementation in individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMt2) receiving scaling and root planing (SRP).
Methods: A 6-month masked, randomized clinical trial comparing SRP with placebo (placebo + SRP group, n = 26) or SRP combined with a 6-month regimen of 400 mg oral propolis once daily (propolis + SRP group, n = 24) was performed in patients with long-standing DMt2 and CP. Treatment outcomes included changes in hemoglobin (Hb) A1c (primary outcome), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum N€-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), and periodontal parameters (secondary outcomes).
Results: After 3 and 6 months, average HbA1c levels in the propolis group decreased significantly by 0.82% and 0.96% units, respectively (P <0.01); however, there were no significant differences in the placebo group. Likewise, FPG and CML levels were significantly reduced in the propolis group, but not in the placebo group. After therapy, periodontal parameters of CP were significantly improved in both groups. The propolis group showed significantly greater probing depth reduction and clinical attachment level gain than the control group after 3 and 6 months.
Conclusion: A 6-month regimen of 400 mg propolis once daily is a potentially viable adjunct to SRP that significantly reduces levels of HbA1c, FPG, and CML, and improves periodontal therapy outcome in people with DMt2 and CP.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; periodontitis; therapeutics.