Background: This study aimed to examine the relationship between changes in systemic vitamin B12 concentrations with pro-inflammatory cytokines, anthropometric factors and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risk in a Saudi population.
Methods: A total of 364 subjects (224 children, age: 12.99 ± 2.73 (mean ± SD) years; BMI: 20.07 ± 4.92 kg/m² and 140 adults, age: 41.87 ± 8.82 years; BMI: 31.65 ± 5.77 kg/m²) were studied. Fasting blood, anthropometric and biochemical data were collected. Serum cytokines were quantified using multiplex assay kits and B12 concentrations were measured using immunoassay analyzer.
Results: Vitamin B12 was negatively associated with TNF-α (r = -0.14, p < 0.05), insulin (r = -0.230, p < 0.01) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.252, p < 0.01) in all subjects. In children, vitamin B12 was negatively associated with serum resistin (r = -0.160, p < 0.01), insulin (r = -0.248, p < 0.01), HOMA-IR (r = -0.261, p < 0.01). In adults, vitamin B12 was negatively associated with TNF-α (r = -0.242, p < 0.01) while positively associated with resistin (r = 0.248, p < 0.01). Serum resistin was the most significant predictor for circulating vitamin B12 in all subjects (r² = -0.17, p < 0.05) and in children (r² = -0.167, p < 0.01) while HDL-cholesterol was the predictor of B12 in adults (r² = -0.78, p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risks in adults. Maintaining adequate vitamin B12 concentrations may lower inflammation-induced cardiometabolic risk in the Saudi adult population.
Keywords: TNF-α; cardiometabolic diseases; resistin; vitamin B12.