Craniofacial Microsomia

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2016 Nov;24(4):495-515. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2016.06.006.


Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) encompasses a broad spectrum of phenotypes. It is thought to result from defective development of the first and second pharyngeal arch structures, and generally presents with anomalies of the mandible and other facial bones, ears, and overlying soft tissues. The cause of CFM is thought to involve both extrinsic and genetic risk factors. Several classification systems have been developed to help stratify patients based on the severity of their defects. Treatment of patients includes repair of bony asymmetry as well as soft tissue defects and auricular anomalies. Surgical intervention is individualized based on each patient's deficits.

Keywords: Costochondral grafting; Craniofacial microsomia; Distraction osteogenesis; Hemifacial microsomia; Oculoauriculovertebral syndrome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Goldenhar Syndrome / classification
  • Goldenhar Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Goldenhar Syndrome / etiology
  • Goldenhar Syndrome / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Mandible / surgery
  • Orthognathic Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Osteogenesis, Distraction
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / methods*
  • Temporomandibular Joint / surgery