Sialophorin (CD43) of leukocytes and platelets is a surface sialoglycoprotein that is phenotypically defective on lymphocytes of patients with the X chromosome-linked immunodeficiency Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Previous studies with monoclonal antibodies indicate that sialophorin is a component of a T-lymphocyte activation pathway. Here we describe the cDNA cloning and derived amino acid sequence of human sialophorin. The sequence predicts an integral membrane polypeptide with an N-terminal hydrophobic signal region followed by a mucin-like 235-residue extracellular region with a uniform distribution of 46 serine, 47 threonine, and 24 proline residues. This is followed by a 23-residue transmembrane region and a 123-residue C-terminal intracellular region. These latter regions have been highly conserved during evolution; the intracellular region contains a number of potential phosphorylation sites that might mediate transduction of activation signals. The chromosomal location of the sialophorin gene was determined and the implications of this assignment for the pathogenesis of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome are discussed.