Long-Term Efficacy of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot - Role of Anti-tachycardia Pacing

Circ J. 2017 Jan 25;81(2):165-171. doi: 10.1253/circj.CJ-16-0932. Epub 2016 Dec 9.


Background: Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the common congenital heart diseases (CHD) in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) recipients, but few studies have reported the long-term outcomes of and the anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) efficacy in repaired TOF.Methods and Results:Twenty-one repaired TOF patients with an ICD implanted between April 2003 and March 2015 were investigated retrospectively. ICD therapy and clinical outcome were analyzed. Mean patient age was 39±11 years; 62% were male; and mean age at repair surgery was 9.4±6.8 years. During a median follow-up of 5.6 years (range, 2.6-8.4 years), no patients died. Appropriate ATP were delivered in 11 patients (52%), with appropriate shocks in 5 patients (24%) and inappropriate shocks in 5 patients (24%). The success rate of ATP was 98% for fast ventricular tachycardia (VT; cycle length ≤320 ms) and 98% for slow VT (cycle length >320 ms). ATP effectiveness increased from 81.5% with the first ATP attempt to 93.7% with the second ATP attempt, to 97.5% with the third ATP attempt, and to 98.6% with the fourth or successive ATP attempt (P<0.0001, Cochran-Armitage trend test).

Conclusions: ATP was highly effective in repaired TOF regardless of VT cycle length. Multiple ATP attempts could have an important role in VT termination, and the novel subcutaneous ICD without ATP capability should be used carefully.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / therapeutic use
  • Adult
  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Defibrillators, Implantable / standards*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular / physiopathology
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / drug therapy
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / surgery*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Adenosine Triphosphate