Uterus transplantation is today the only available treatment for absolute uterine factor infertility which is caused by either congenital/surgical uterine absence or that a present uterus is non-functioning. Structured animal-based research, from rodents to nonhuman primates, was the scientific basis for a successful introduction of uterus transplantation as a clinical procedure. The patient groups for uterus transplantation, the preclinical research and data from the published human cases will be covered herein. During recent years the concept of bioengineering of organs and tissues has emerged. Creation of a bioengineered uterus is in the initial research state, with experiments performed in rodents. The research that has been performed to create a bioengineered uterus will be summarized. In conclusion, uterus transplantation is now a clinical experimental procedure for treatment of uterine factor infertility. In parallel to the establishment of this combined assisted reproduction technique and transplantation procedure as a routine clinical procedure, we predict that uterus bioengineering will develop further towards introduction within the human setting, but that this process will take several years.