First report in Africa of two clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis carrying Salmonella genomic island (SGI1) variants, SGI1-PmABB and SGI1-W

Infect Genet Evol. 2017 Jul:51:132-137. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2017.03.029. Epub 2017 Mar 28.


Two Proteus mirabilis strains, designated PmTAN59 and PmKAF126, were isolated from two different Egyptian cities in 2014 and 2015, respectively. PmTAN59 was isolated from a sputum swab from a pneumonia patient in Tanta University Teaching Hospital. PmKAF126 was isolated from a patient with a diabetic foot infection in a hospital in the city of Kafr El-Sheikh. The two isolates were identified with bacterial small ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene amplification and sequencing and tested for antimicrobial sensitivity with a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. The two strains were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulante, ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, colistin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprime, and tetracycline, but sensitive to aztreonam, imipenem, and meropenem. Molecular characterization was used to map the entire backbone, including the multiple antibiotic resistance (MDR) region, of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). Both isolates carried a structure similar to SGI1, with two different MDR regions corresponding to SGI1-PmABB in PmTAN59 and SGI1-W in PmKAF126. SGI1-PmABB carried an integron of ~1.5kb with a two-gene cassette, aacCA5-aadA7, which confers resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin, and spectinomycin, whereas SGI1-W carried an integron of ~1.9kb containing aadA2-lnuF, which confers resistance to spectinomycin, streptomycin, and lincosamides. PmKAF126 carried the entire SGI1 sequence, however PmTAN59 carried a SGI1 structure with a deletion in the region from ORF S005 to ORF S009 and accompanied by insertion of IS1359 (1258bp). Furthermore, PmTAN59 carried class 2 integron of ~2.2kb containing dfrA1-sat2-aadA1. An ERIC-PCR analysis detected no clonal relationship between the two strains. Molecular screening for other antimicrobial resistance genes and a plasmid analysis indicated that PmTAN59 carried an IncFIB plasmid type. This strain also carried blaTEM-1 and the plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance gene qnrA1. However, PmKAF126 carried no plasmids and no resistance gene other than that contained in the MDR region of SGI1 and floR gene conferring resistance to florfenicol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an SGI1-positive P. mirabilis strain in Egypt or on the entire African continent.

Keywords: Africa; Egypt; Proteus mirabilis; SGI1; Salmonella genomic island 1.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Base Sequence
  • Conjugation, Genetic
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial / genetics*
  • Egypt / epidemiology
  • Genomic Islands*
  • Gentamicins / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • INDEL Mutation*
  • Integrons
  • Lincosamides / pharmacology
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Open Reading Frames
  • Plasmids / chemistry
  • Plasmids / metabolism
  • Proteus Infections / drug therapy
  • Proteus Infections / epidemiology
  • Proteus Infections / microbiology
  • Proteus mirabilis / drug effects
  • Proteus mirabilis / genetics*
  • Proteus mirabilis / isolation & purification
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics*
  • Salmonella enterica / genetics*
  • Spectinomycin / pharmacology
  • Sputum / microbiology
  • Streptomycin / pharmacology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Gentamicins
  • Lincosamides
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • Spectinomycin
  • Streptomycin