Transforming growth factor β: a master regulator of the gut microbiota and immune cell interactions

Clin Transl Immunology. 2017 Apr 7;6(4):e136. doi: 10.1038/cti.2017.9. eCollection 2017 Apr.


The relationship between host organisms and their microbiota has co-evolved towards an inter-dependent network of mutualistic interactions. This interplay is particularly well studied in the gastrointestinal tract, where microbiota and host immune cells can modulate each other directly, as well as indirectly, through the production and release of chemical molecules and signals. In this review, we define the functional impact of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) on this complex interplay, especially through its modulation of the activity of local regulatory T cells (Tregs), type 17 helper (Th17) cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and B cells.

Publication types

  • Review