The spectrum of pre-dementia stages: cognitive profile of motoric cognitive risk syndrome and relationship with mild cognitive impairment

Eur J Neurol. 2017 Aug;24(8):1047-1054. doi: 10.1111/ene.13331. Epub 2017 Jun 16.


Background and purpose: Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is a pre-dementia syndrome. There is little information on the cognitive profile of individuals with MCR syndrome and its overlap with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) syndrome. This study aimed to examine and compare the cognitive performance of non-demented older community dwellers with and without MCR and MCI syndromes.

Methods: A total of 291 non-demented individuals were selected from the Gait and Alzheimer Interactions Tracking study, which is a cross-sectional study. All participants were referred to a memory clinic. Individuals with and without MCR were separated into those with and without MCI. Cognitive performance was measured using the scores of the Mini Mental Status Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, Trail Making Test part A and B, and Stroop test.

Results: The prevalence of MCI was 40.1% and that of MCR was 18.2%, with a higher prevalence of MCI in MCR group compared with the non-MCR group (47.2% vs. 39.5%). Individuals with MCR and MCI syndromes had poorer cognitive performance in all domains compared with those without MCR (P < 0.005), except for the ratio part III: part I of the Stroop test (P = 0.345). The association between cognitive performance and MCR syndrome was worse on the Mini Mental Status Examination score [effect size, -0.57 (95% confidence interval, -1.02 to -0.12)] and Trail Making Test part B [effect size, 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.14-1.04)] in individuals with MCR and MCI syndromes.

Conclusions: Motoric cognitive risk syndrome is associated with low global cognitive performance. Association of MCR and MCI syndromes is characterized by a worse cognitive performance.

Keywords: cognitive disorders; gait disorders; mild cognitive impairment.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Cognition Disorders / epidemiology
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / diagnosis*
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dementia / diagnosis*
  • Dementia / epidemiology
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Gait / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors