How grinding level and brewing method (Espresso, American, Turkish) could affect the antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds in a coffee cup

J Sci Food Agric. 2018 Jun;98(8):3198-3207. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8826. Epub 2018 Jan 22.


Background: Depending on geographical origin and cultural traditions, different brewing procedures are used all over the world to prepare a cup of coffee. In this work, we explored how three grinding levels of coffee powder and three coffee preparation methods - filtration (American), boiling (Turkish) and extraction under pressure (Espresso) - affect healthy compounds and physicochemical attributes in coffee served to consumers.

Results: Grinding level slightly affected the quality of coffee, whereas the preparation method significantly influenced all in-cup attributes. When the content per cup was compared, the American coffee presented higher values of antioxidant activity and total phenol content than espresso and Turkish coffees. Caffeine content was 316, 112 and 64 mg for the American, Turkish and espresso coffee cup, respectively.

Conclusion: One American, three Turkish and five Espresso coffee cups contain similar amount of caffeine of 316, 336 and 320 mg, respectively which are below the maximum daily consumption (400 mg per day) suggested by the European Food Safety Authority. The extraction method affects the intake of bioactive and antioxidant substances with specific properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: antioxidant activity; caffeine; coffee brewing procedures; grinding level; total phenol content.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Caffeine / analysis
  • Coffea / chemistry*
  • Coffee / chemistry*
  • Cooking / methods*
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Hot Temperature
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Seeds / chemistry


  • Antioxidants
  • Coffee
  • Phenols
  • Caffeine