Lyme borreliosis is a spirochetal infection with a potential to produce a clinical disease in the human host with protean manifestations as diverse as the spectrum of disease caused by Treponema pallidum. Neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations of Lyme borreliosis are emphasized in this short review. A brief historical chronicle of Lyme disease is offered. Potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of Lyme disease with an emphasis on false negative serology and currently available diagnostic modalities are presented. Therapeutic options for Lyme borreliosis are briefly reviewed.