Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Brain Metastases from Primary Tumors of the Urinary Bladder

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2018;96(2):108-112. doi: 10.1159/000488151. Epub 2018 Apr 26.


Background/aims: Brain metastases from bladder cancer are rare and published outcomes data are sparse. To date, no institutions have reported a series of patients with brain metastases from bladder cancer treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Our aim was to identify patients with brain metastases from bladder primaries treated with SRS with or without surgical resection and report the clinical outcomes.

Methods: Patients meeting eligibility criteria at our institution between 2000 and 2017 were included. The clinical variables of interest, including overall survival (OS), local recurrence, V12, distant brain failure (DBF), and initial brain metastases velocity, were calculated. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to identify predictors of time-to-event outcomes.

Results: A total of 14 patients were included. The median OS from the time of treatment was 2.1 months. Factors predictive of OS include intracranial resection (HR 0.21, p = 0.03). The cumulative incidence of local failure was 21% at 6 months and 30% at 12 months. The cumulative incidence of DBF at 6 and 12 months was 23 and 31%, respectively.

Conclusions: The prognosis in this patient population remains guarded. Factors associated with improved survival include intracranial resection. Future, prospective work is needed to further define optimal management.

Keywords: Brain metastases; Gamma knife; Stereotactic radiosurgery; Urinary bladder primaries.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy*
  • Brain Neoplasms / secondary*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Radiosurgery / methods*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Salvage Therapy / methods
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy*