Vincristine, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide in the treatment of malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study (a final report)

Cancer. 1985 Jul 15;56(2):243-8. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(19850715)56:2<243::aid-cncr2820560206>;2-t.


Seventy-six patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary received vincristine, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) postoperatively. Fifty-four were treated after removal of all gross disease. The majority of these remain disease-free. Indeed, only 15 (28%) have failed, including 11 of 24 with pure endodermal sinus tumor, 3 of 11 (27%) with mixed germ cell tumor containing endodermal sinus elements, and only 1 of 20 with immature teratoma grade 2 or 3, a patient seen initially with recurrent disease. Postoperative VAC therapy, however, did not appear to be effective in patients with unresectable or incompletely resected germ cell tumors of the ovary. Fifteen of 22 patients (68%) with incompletely resected germ cell tumors failed VAC therapy, including 4 of 7 with pure endodermal sinus tumor, 5 of 5 with mixed germ cell tumors containing endodermal sinus elements, 2 of 2 with embryonal carcinoma, and 4 of 8 with immature teratoma. In failing, patients' median time to progression was 8 months. Dose-limiting toxicity was seen in 30% of the entire group. Combined cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin therapy now is being tested in this group of tumors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage
  • Dactinomycin / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mesonephroma / drug therapy
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy*
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • Reoperation
  • Teratoma / drug therapy
  • Vincristine / administration & dosage


  • Dactinomycin
  • Vincristine
  • Cyclophosphamide

Supplementary concepts

  • VAC protocol