Gut Bacterial Microbiota and its Resistome Rapidly Recover to Basal State Levels after Short-term Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Treatment in Healthy Adults

Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 25;8(1):11192. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-29229-5.


Clinical effects of antimicrobials and probiotics in combination have been reported, however, little is known about their impact on gut microbiota and its resistome. In this study 16S rRNA gene amplicon, shotgun metagenomics sequencing and antibiotic resistance (ABR) microarray were used on fecal samples of 70 healthy participants, taken at four time points in probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052) and placebo groups to profile the gut bacterial microbiota and its resistome following administration of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for one week. Significant shifts in microbiota family composition caused by the antimicrobial in both groups that included decreases in the proportion of Lachnospiraceae, Coriobacteriaceae and unidentified Clostridiales; and notable increases for the proportion of Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Porphyromonadaceae compared to baseline levels. Resistome showed a corresponding enrichment of ABR genes compared to baseline from such classes as aminoglycosides and beta-lactams that were linked, by in silico inference, to the enrichment of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Despite perturbations caused by short-term antibiotic treatment, both gut microbiota and resistome showed prompt recovery to baseline levels one week after cessation of the antimicrobial. This rapid recovery may be explained by the hypothesis of community resilience.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination / administration & dosage*
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial / genetics*
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Female
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus / drug effects
  • Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus / genetics*
  • Lactobacillus helveticus / drug effects
  • Lactobacillus helveticus / genetics
  • Male
  • Metagenomics*
  • Probiotics / administration & dosage
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics


  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination