Heating both testes of rats to between 39 degrees C and 41 degrees C for 30 min was apparently without effect 21 days later, but heating to between 41.5 degrees C and 43 degrees C for 30 min resulted in a significant drop in testis weight accompanied by significant rises in the serum levels of LH and FSH. There were no changes in serum testosterone concentration in the peripheral circulation although there were increases in the concentration in testicular venous blood. The ability of the heated testis to secrete testosterone in vivo in response to maximal stimulation by hCG was reduced, as judged by testosterone levels in peripheral blood, while there was a supranormal increase in testosterone levels in testicular venous blood. Maximally stimulated testosterone production in vitro by the heated testis was supranormal whereas the basal production of testosterone per testis was not different from control values. Therefore, it appears that the testosterone produced by Leydig cells from heated testes may not be secreted as effectively as in normal testes.