Sensing and responding to diverse extracellular signals: an updated analysis of the sensor kinases and response regulators of Streptomyces species

Microbiology (Reading). 2019 Sep;165(9):929-952. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000817.


Streptomyces venezuelae is a Gram-positive, filamentous actinomycete with a complex developmental life cycle. Genomic analysis revealed that S. venezuelae encodes a large number of two-component systems (TCSs): these consist of a membrane-bound sensor kinase (SK) and a cognate response regulator (RR). These proteins act together to detect and respond to diverse extracellular signals. Some of these systems have been shown to regulate antimicrobial biosynthesis in Streptomyces species, making them very attractive to researchers. The ability of S. venezuelae to sporulate in both liquid and solid cultures has made it an increasingly popular model organism in which to study these industrially and medically important bacteria. Bioinformatic analysis identified 58 TCS operons in S. venezuelae with an additional 27 orphan SK and 18 orphan RR genes. A broader approach identified 15 of the 58 encoded TCSs to be highly conserved in 93 Streptomyces species for which high-quality and complete genome sequences are available. This review attempts to unify the current work on TCS in the streptomycetes, with an emphasis on S. venezuelae.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / biosynthesis*
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / genetics*
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism
  • Genes, Regulator*
  • Genomics
  • Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional / genetics
  • Response Elements / genetics
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Streptomyces / genetics*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases

Supplementary concepts

  • Streptomyces venezuelae