Addressing hypertelorism: Indications and techniques

Neurochirurgie. 2019 Nov;65(5):286-294. doi: 10.1016/j.neuchi.2019.09.007. Epub 2019 Sep 23.


From its first descriptions in the early 1920s to today's use of cutting guides via computer-assisted surgery, surgical techniques to address hypertelorism have progressed. The present article aims to provide historical background and an overview of the development of surgical techniques during the late 20th century and in recent years. First, a historical overview identifies the most important surgical advances leading to the present state of the art. Each major surgical innovation is described, to explain the changes in this surgical field, according to the type of approach. Then, a precise description of today's most recent practices is provided, with particular emphasis on the spectacular advances deriving from computer-assisted surgery. A thorough description of the use of cutting guides throughout the surgical phase is given.

Keywords: Box osteotomies; Craniofacial surgery; Cutting guides; Facial bipartition; Frontonasal dysplasia; Hypertelorism; Presurgical planning.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • History, 20th Century
  • Humans
  • Hypertelorism / surgery*
  • Neurosurgery / history*
  • Neurosurgical Procedures / methods*
  • Orbit / pathology
  • Osteotomy / methods*
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted