Maternal obesity impacts offspring metabolism. We sought to boost mitochondrial energy metabolism using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) to treat metabolic impairment induced by maternal and long-term post weaning over-nutrition. Male offspring of lean or obese mothers, fed chow or high fat diet (HFD) for 30 weeks post-weaning, were given NMN injection, starting at 31 weeks of age, daily for 3 weeks before sacrifice. Glucose tolerance was tested at 10, 29 and 32 weeks of age to measure short and long term effects of post-weaning HFD, and NMN treatment. Plasma insulin and triglycerides, liver triglycerides and expression of mitochondrial metabolism-related genes were measured at 34 weeks. Impaired glucose tolerance due to maternal and post weaning HFD was significantly improved by only 8 days of NMN treatment. Furthermore, in offspring of obese mothers hepatic lipid accumulation was reduced due to NMN treatment by 50% and 23% in chow and HFD fed offspring respectively. Hepatic genes involved in fat synthesis, transport and uptake were reduced, while those involved in fatty acid oxidation were increased by NMN. Overall this finding suggests short term administration of NMN could be a therapeutic approach for treating metabolic disease due to maternal and post weaning over-nutrition, even in late adulthood.
Keywords: male offspring; maternal obesity; mitochondria; nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN).